In the agreements adopted in Copenhagen in 2009 and Cancun in 2010, governments set a target of keeping global temperature increases below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The Paris Agreement reaffirms the 2-degree target and insists that the increase be limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The agreement also sets two other long-term mitigation objectives: first, a peak in emissions as soon as possible (recognizing that it will take longer for developing countries); a goal of net neutrality of greenhouse gases (“a balance between anthropogenic emissions from sources and distance by wells”) in the second half of the century. Adaptation – the measures to be taken to deal with the effects of climate change – is much more important under the Paris Agreement than it has done so far under the UNFCCC. As well as the parties will make contributions to the reduction, the Agreement requires all parties to plan and implement adjustment efforts “where appropriate” and encourages all parties to report on their adjustment efforts and/or needs. The agreement also provides for a review of progress in adaptation and the adequacy and effectiveness of adjustment support in the overall inventory that will be completed every five years. The Paris Agreement, marked by the historic agreement once adopted, owes its success not only to the return of a framework favourable to climate change and sustainable development, but also to efforts to review the management of international climate negotiations. The Paris Agreement is supported by new initiatives that will all be adapted to the difficulties identified at the previous COP. This innovative approach is based on four elements: the adoption of a universal agreement. Define each state`s national contributions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Although the text of the agreement does not mention the content of these contributions, it obliges signatory states to establish a contribution plan, implement it and raise amounts every five years. Civil society`s participation in the negotiation process through the action programme adopted in November 2016, which brings together civil society initiatives from 180 countries. In 2015, members of civil society were appointed at a high level to facilitate civil society participation in the intergovernmental process. The financial commitment of developed countries to contribute up to $100 billion a year from 2020. This funding should give priority to the states most affected by the effects of climate change. But it still cannot access climate money, a condition that President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said must change if Turkey wants to ratify the deal. Turkey is now the only G20 member not to have officially approved the agreement after it was ratified by Russia in October 2019. The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  On November 4, 2019, the United States informed the custodian of its withdrawal from the agreement, which was to take effect exactly one year after that date.  Turkey and three major oil-exporting nations are among the seven countries that have not yet ratified the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Angola joined Kyrgyzstan and Lebanon and ratified in 2020, meaning the 190-nation agreement was formally approved by 197 nations. The Paris Conference was the 21st meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), known as COP 21.
The conference concluded a round of negotiations that began in 2011 in Durban, South Africa, with the aim of concluding a new legal agreement between national governments to strengthen the global response to climate change.